Margy and I collected ten buckets of seaweed, took our first swim of the season in the bay at Winslow Park, and floated on the water, and even saw horseshoe crabs mating in the shallows. What a lovely way to celebrate Summer Solstice evening! May your summer solstice be full of magic, too.
We’ve been getting ready for our Permablitz this coming Saturday–a big permaculture work party where 20 or more people gather to do projects in our yard. We’ve gathered cardboard for sheet mulching, had a great big pile of deciduous mulch delivered, got a bucket of granite dust, ordered concrete blocks for rain barrel stands, got clearer on a few design elements, met the wise and wonderful folks who will be team leaders for our various projects, and many other details. And we’ve talked to our blitz coordinator and friend Heather many many times. Thank you Heather! We still have to gather seaweed, and get pallets, and make food, and…. You can find more details about the blitz here: https://www.meetup.com/maine-permaculture/events/240585144/
In the meantime, our cherry tree polycultures are now green with clover.
Here are some “before pictures for the yard, first, where fruit tree, raspberry and herb and flower beds are going to be created.
And here the yellow markers mark a future bed for hazelnut bushes to form a little hedge.
At first I wondered what a cardinal was doing, hover-flying near a flowering bush, almost like a hummingbird. The next time I took a walk, I saw him sitting on the grass. He let me take a photo, and then flew up in short stretches to a wire, another wire, a tree branch, another tree branch, and finally, all the way across the street. That is when I figured out that he was learning to use his wings. The next day, in a misty rain, there he was again, perched on a white picket fence, before he flew up to a wire. You go, cardinal! I hope you make it all the way.
I walked to the cemetery ponds yesterday, and was sitting on a log. I suddenly noticed this strange creature in the water. Very quickly, they disappeared. How often do we walk by unaware of the mysteries hiding almost within our sight? Because I knew the snapping turtle was there, I could see enough to take this next photo, where they are barely visible beneath the water, in the shadow of the log. Can you see it?
How many other mysteries do we miss, how many beauties, how many blessings, lurking just beneath the shadows as we quickly pass by? May we slow down, may we pay attention, may we see what is all around us today.
Today I almost finished soil work and guild plantings around each of the cherry trees–still 1/3 to do around the second tree. First I aerated the soil with our garden fork to a five foot radius around the tree. (The soil was already covered with mulch from last fall-wood chips, cut grass, sea weed, and dead leaves.) Then I put down newspaper or cardboard along the outer half of each circle, and covered it with compost. I planted the companion plants for each cherry tree guild. Guilds are plants that work together so that each does better than if they were planted alone. In this case, the primary focus is the health of the cherry tree.
The plants I used and their functions:
- Comfrey is a nutrient accumulator–its roots go deep and bring up calcium and other vital nutrients, and then the leaves can be cut several times a season, and used as mulch. It also attracts pollinators and other beneficial insects. It can be used in herbal medicine. It was recommended to plant it at least four feet from the trunk.
- Chives accumulate nutrients, deter pests, are anti-fungal and attract pollinators… They bloom at the same time as the cherry will, and are also a culinary herb. I had enough to do two per tree.
- Oregano is an aromatic pest confuser, is anti-fungal, can take some foot traffic, and of course is a culinary herb.
- Thyme is another insect pest repellant and culinary herb (my favorite.)
- Chamomile accumulates nutrients, is anti-fungal, and attracts beneficial insects..
- Rhubarb is another perennial food, and can be cut in place for mulch.
- At the outer edge of the circle around the Lapins Cherry, I also planted a row of annual kale. The cherry tree won’t reach that far for a couple years, so it works okay. I mulched them with egg shells, which I understand will deter kale eating pests.
- That guild also got one Sweet Cicely plant, which attracts beneficial insect predators to kill insect pests. Plus I hear it tastes like licorice/anise.
- The other tree guild also got Lemon Balm, and maybe a Bee Balm plant–I haven’t planted it yet and I’m deciding if it will get too big–if so, maybe it will go nearby. The Lemon Balm was from the plant swap, and attracts pollinators and repels ants and flies. I just read that it will spread. Bee Balm attracts pollinators.
- Between all the other plants, I planted Red Clover seeds–they are a nitrogen fixer, and this variety is best for a fungally dominant soil. It is a good ground cover to keep weeds away, easy to walk on too. I put some straw mulch on the seeds to get them started, but I think I will add wood chips over it all.
Later in the fall, I plan to add daffodils in a ring about 2 feet from the trunk, to deter munching pests. I also ended up designating two paths into the tree for each circle–so I can get to the center easily. Once again, I end the day with sore muscles, but so happy.
Today was a day for food forests! My friend Mihku and I went to a tour of Edgewood Nursery in the morning, and then later she showed me how to train the branches of the cherry tree so that it will grow into a good shape for growing and picking cherries.
Aaron Parker of Edgewood is so knowledgeable about perennial fruits and vegetables, and also has so many great permaculture plants to taste and buy. I fell in love with Turkish Rocket, a perennial vegetable that tastes somewhat like broccoli. More on that in a later post. But I also got to see a grown up cherry tree, and get a sense of what they might look like and how they are shaped at maturity. Back at home, Mihku and I used kite string and tent stakes to bend three branches on each tree closer to the ground, so they grow into a stronger shape–which means developing a wider “crotch angle.” One branch was left in the center as the leader. I am so grateful that Mihku and others are willing to show me how–it is so much easier to see it done, than to try to figure it out from books.
After that, because our new garden fork had arrived in the mail, I started aerating the soil around the trees–or I should say, I got 1/3 of the way around one tree–it was a lot of hard work. Our soil is very compacted, so this is important for soil health, but my whole body is aching now. In order to feel a bit more accomplished, I focused on that one section, laid down some thick newspaper sections over the soil, added compost on top, and then planted 14 (annual) kale plants, a patch of thyme, some chamomile, and a sweet cicely plant. These were all plants we got at the plant swap, and the kale were getting pretty leggy. I added a bit of mulch. Still much more to do tomorrow.
Finally, I put together a holistic spray that I learned about from The Holistic Orchard book, but was presented in a simple recipe at Fedco Seeds. Fedco actually sells all the ingredients, but before I knew that, I had searched around and got Neem Oil at Lowes, and ordered two more ingredients on Amazon. I didn’t have exactly what they recommended, and I didn’t “activate” the EM-1, but as I understand it, this spray will help to colonize the trees with helpful microbes so that they can resist pests and disease, just like probiotics for humans. Margy had already purchased a sprayer for other yard uses, so all I had to do was mix it up, and spray all over our new trees; and then I also sprayed what I could reach of our ornamental cherries which have been very neglected for years. Here are the important ingredients of this tonic:
Fish Hydrolysate: Feeds soil and arboreal food web.
Neem Oil: Contains Azadirachtin compounds that deter pests and disrupt their life cycles. Neem also is said to stimulate the tree’s immune system, give nutrients to foliage and feed the arboreal food web. …
Liquid Kelp: Promotes growth and helps trees adapt to stress.
EM-1: A probiotic inoculant that colonizes the branches and fruit with beneficial microbes to promote fruit growth and disease resistance. Click here for info on fermenting, or “activating,” EM-1.
Who knew that there were so many kinds of compost? According to Michael Phillips in The Holistic Orchard, tree fruits prefer a fungally dominant compost, which you can get by using lots of leaves and not turning your pile. So that is the kind we’ve accidentally been making at home, since we use lots of leaves and hardly ever turn our pile. Vegetables prefer bacterially dominant compost, which likes to be turned a lot. To quote:
Orchard soils ideally contain a fungal presence ten times higher than that of bacteria…. Fungi respond to surface decomposition, whereas bacteria prefer soil disturbance. We are building a fungal duff of organic matter where the biological action desired is going to take place. Compost, deciduous wood chips, seaweed, and raked leaves can be added atop [the soil.]
So, last fall, when we spread the wood chips from the old maple tree, we were beginning to create this fungal duff. Margy topped the wood chips with cut grass and seaweed and leaves. But when we planted the cherry trees, we had to dig a big hole, so all of that was disturbed, and we put regular compost as part of the soil back fill in the holes; I guess that is not actually recommended so much.
I also learned that the type of mulch matters. Margy had arranged for us to get some free wood mulch, (hurray!) which turned out to be from evergreen trees. She had put some of that mulch, along with straw, around the newly planted cherry trees. But I learned, in The Holistic Orchard, that fruit trees especially love mulch made from wood chips from deciduous trees–most particularly “ramial” wood chips made from twig wood less than 7 centimeters in diameter–because that contains soluble lignins. The evergreen mulch actually contains compounds that suppress other plant growth. Who knew?
So the very next day, I went out and moved that evergreen mulch away, and dug up some of the starting-to-decompose deciduous wood & leaves mulch, piling it up in a six-foot diameter circle around each tree, careful to leave open space around the trunks themselves. Next time, Margy can ask our wood chip supplier to save us some of the ramial chips.
All this to say, we just got 4 yards of compost delivered today from Wilshire Farm, composted manure to be exact, which we hope to use for creating growing medium for companion plants for the trees, some surface feeding for the trees, and for Sylvia’s herb garden.
I learned about The Holistic Orchard and Wilshire Farm from a workshop on fruit trees by Aaron Parker of Edgewood Nursery, held at the Resilience Hub. It all seems much more complicated than just planting a tree and getting fruit a few years later. I am trying to take it one or two steps at a time.